Headache management is a crucial aspect of maintaining overall well-being, and research has shown that diet and nutrition can play a significant role in controlling headache symptoms. Migraine, a highly prevalent headache disorder, has been linked to the intake of various nutrients and adherence to specific diets. In this article, we will explore the connection between diet, nutrition, and headache management, focusing on the findings from a recent study published in the International Journal on Nutrition, on the association between nutritional status and migraine prevalence.

Study on Nutritional Status and Migraine

A study published in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) analyzed the data of 1,838 migraineurs out of 8,953 participants. The researchers used weighted multivariable linear or logistic regression analyses to examine the association between the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and the occurrence of severe headache or migraine.

Results showed that mild (PNI 45–50) or moderate to severe (PNI <45) malnutrition was associated with a higher prevalence of severe headache or migraine. Furthermore, participants with severe headache or migraine consumed less alcohol, dietary fiber, cholesterol, total folate, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin K, selenium, potassium, magnesium, and copper. On the other hand, they consumed more caffeine and theobromine compared to those without severe headache or migraine.

Implications for Headache Management

The study’s findings highlight the potential of nutrition-based strategies for migraine prevention and treatment. By identifying specific nutrients that are associated with migraine prevalence, individuals can adjust their diets to manage their headaches better. Here are some suggestions for incorporating these nutrients into a balanced diet:

  1. Increase dietary fiber intake: Consuming more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes can help increase dietary fiber levels, possibly contributing to headache management.
  2. Incorporate more vitamins and minerals: Incorporating more vitamin-rich foods, such as leafy greens, colorful fruits, and fortified cereals, can help boost vitamin and mineral intake.
  3. Monitor caffeine consumption: While caffeine may temporarily relieve some, excessive consumption can lead to headaches or exacerbate existing ones. Be mindful of your caffeine intake and consider cutting back if you experience frequent headaches.
  4. Stay hydrated: Dehydration can trigger headaches, so it’s essential to drink enough water and consume hydrating foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
  5. Limit alcohol intake: Alcohol can lead to dehydration and trigger headaches, so it’s essential to consume it in moderation.


The impact of diet and nutrition on headache management is significant, with the PNI serving as a potential predictor of migraine risk. By adjusting one’s diet to include more headache-friendly nutrients, individuals can take proactive steps toward better headache management and overall well-being. Always consult with a healthcare professional or nutritionist before making significant changes to your diet, especially if you have pre-existing health conditions or concerns.


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